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Contact Us Fall 2001; Volume 2, Number 2
Feature: Violence and Healthcare

Firearm Prevalence and the Risk of Suicide: A Review

Continued

page 1
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Endnotes

1. United States National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), WISQUARS web site 2001, <http://wonder.cdc.gov/mortsql.shtml> (cited 1 July 2001).

2. NCHS 1998 mortality data

3. Ibid.

4. Chapdelaine A, Sampton E, Kimberly MD. “Firearm related injuries in Canada: Issues for prevention.” Canadian Medical Association Journal, 1991. 145:1217-1223.

5. Seiden RH. “Suicide prevention: a public health/public policy approach.” Omega, 1977. 8:267-76.

6. Chapdelaine et al. 1991

7. Killias M. “International correlations between gun ownership and rates of homicide and suicide.” Canadian Medical Association Journal, 1993. 148:1721-25.

8. Killias M. “Gun ownership, suicide, and homicide: an international perspective.” In Understanding crime: Experiences of crime and crime control. Acts of the International Conference, Rome, 18-20 November 1992. Edited by Anna Alvazzi del Frate, Ugljesa Zvekic and Jan J.M. van Dijk. Publication no. 49, Rome, 1993. pp289-303.

9. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 1997 (February 7) 46:101-105.

10. Johnson GR, Krug EG, Potter LB. “Suicide among adolescents and young adults: a cross-national comparison of 34 countries.” Suicide and Life Threatening Behavior, 2000. 30:74-82.

11. Sloan, J.H., Rivara, F.P., Reay, D.T., Ferris, J.A., & Kellermann, A.L. (1990). “Firearm regulations and rates of suicide : a comparison of two metropolitan cities.” New England Journal of Medicine, 322. 369-73.

12. Miller M, Hemenway D. “The relationship between firearms and suicide: a review of the literature.” Aggression and Violent Behavior, 1999. 4:59-75.

13. Brent DA, et al. “The presence and accessibility of firearm in the home of adolescent suicides: a case-control study.” JAMA, 1991. 266:2989-2995.

14. Brent DA, et al. “Firearms and adolescent suicide: a community case-control study.” American Journal of Diseases of Children, 1993. 147:1066-1071.

15. Kellermann AL, et al. “Suicide in the home in relation to gun ownership.” New England Journal of Medicine, 1992. 327:467-72.
16. Cummings P, et al. “The association between the purchase of a handgun and homicide or suicide.” American Journal of Public Health, 1997. 87:974-78.

17. Markush R, Bartolucci A. “Firearms and suicide in the United States.” American Journal of Public Health, 1984. 64:123-27.

18. Birckmayer J, Hemenway D. “Suicide and gun prevalence: Are youth disproportionately affected?” Suicide and Life Threatening Behavior. In press.

19. Lester D. “Gun ownership and suicide in the United States.” Psychological Medicine, 1989. 19:519-521.

20. Kleck G, Peterson EB. “The impact of gun control and gun ownership levels on violence rates.” Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 1993. 9:249-87.

21. Hellsten JJ. Motivation and opportunity: An ecological investigation of U.S. urban suicide, 1970-1990. PhD thesis in Social Ecology. University of California, Irvine. 1995.

22. Miller M, Azrael D, Hemenway D. “Gun availability and suicide rates across US states, 1988-1997.” Harvard Injury Control Research Center Working Paper 2001-4.

23. Lester D, Murrell ME. “The preventive effect of strict gun control laws on suicide and homicide.” Suicide and Life Threatening Behavior, 1982. 12:13140.

24. Medoff MH, Magaddino JP. “Suicide and firearm control laws.” Evaluation Review, 1983. 7:357-72.

25. Lester, D, Murrell, M. “The influence of gun control laws on personal violence.” Journal of Community Psychology, 1986. 14: 315-318.

26. Boor M, Bair JH. “Suicide rates, handgun control laws, and sociodemographic variables.” Psychological Reports, 1990. 66:923-930.

27. Yang B, Lester D. “The effect of gun availability on suicide rates.” Atlantic Economic Review, 1991. 19:74.

28. Medoff and Magadino 1983

29. Yang and Lester 1991

30. Boor and Bair 1990

31. Lostin C, McDowall D, Wiersema B, Talbert CJ. “Effect of restrictive licensing of handguns on homicide and suicide in the District of Columbia.” New England Journal of Medicine, 1991. 325:1615-1620.

32. Carrington PJ, Moyer S. “Gun control and suicide in Ontario.” American Journal of Psychiatry 1994; 151:606-608.

33. Ibid.

34. Lester, D, Leenaars, A. “Suicide rates in Canada before and after tightening firearm control laws.” Psychological Reports, 1993. 72: 787-790.

35. Lester, D, Leenaars, A. “Gun control and rates of firearms violence in Canada and the United States, a comment.” Canadian Journal of Criminology, 1994. 463-464.

References

Berman AL, Brown R, Diaz GT, et al. Consensus statement on youth suicide by firearms. Archives Suicide Research. 1998; 4:89-94.

Birckmayer J, Hemenway D. Suicide and gun prevalence: Are youth disproportionately affected? Suicide and Life Threatening Behavior. In press

Boor M, Bair JH. Suicide rates, handgun control laws, and sociodemographic variables. Psychological Reports 1990; 66:923-930.

Brent DA, Perper JA, Allman CJ, et al. The presence and accessibility of firearm in the home of adolescent suicides: a case-control study. JAMA. 1991; 266:2989-2995.

Brent DA, Perper JA, Moritz G, et al. Firearms and adolescent suicide: a community case-control study. American Journal of Diseases of Children. 1993; 147:1066-1071.

Carrington PJ, Moyer S. Gun control and suicide in Ontario. American Journal of Psychiatry 1994; 151:606-608.

Chapdelaine A, Sampton E, Kimberly MD. Firearm related injuries in Canada: Issues for prevention. Canadian Medical Association Journal. 1991; 145:1217-1223.

Cummings P, Koepsell TD, Grossman D, et al. The association between the purchase of a handgun and homicide or suicide. American Journal of Public Health. 1997; 87:974-78

Hellsten JJ. Motivation and opportunity: An ecological investigation of U.S. urban suicide, 1970-1990. PhD thesis in Social Ecology. University of California, Irvine. 1995.
Johnson GR, Krug EG, Potter LB. Suicide among adolescents and young adults: a cross-national comparison of 34 countries. Suicide and Life Threatening Behavior. 2000; 30:74-82.

Kellermann AL, Rivara FP, Somes G, et al. Suicide in the home in relation to gun ownership. New England Journal of Medicine. 1992; 327:467-72

Killias M. International correlations between gun ownership and rates of homicide and suicide. Canadian Medical Association Journal. 1993; 148:1721-25.

Killias M. Gun ownership, suicide, and homicide: an international perspective. In Understanding crime: Experiences of crime and crime control. Acts of the International Conference, Rome, 18-20 November 1992. Edited by Anna Alvazzi del Frate, Ugljesa Zvekic and Jan J.M. van Dijk. Publication no. 49, Rome, 1993; pp289-303.

Kleck G, Peterson EB. The impact of gun control and gun ownership levels on violence rates. Journal of Quantitative Criminology 1993; 9:249-87.

Lester D, Murrell ME. The preventive effect of strict gun control laws on suicide and homicide. Suicide and Life Threatening Behavior. 1982; 12:13140

Lester D. Gun ownership and suicide in the United States. Psychological Medicine 1989; 19:519-521.

Lipschitz A. Suicide prevention in young adults (age 18-30). Suicide and Life Threatening Behavior. 1995; 25:155-170.

Lostin C, McDowall D, Wiersema B, Talbert CJ. Effect of restrictive licensing of handguns on homicide and suicide in the District of Columbia. New England Journal of Medicine. 1991; 325:1615-1620.

Markush R, Bartolucci A. Firearms and suicide in the United States. American Journal of Public Health. 1984; 64:123-27.

Medoff MH, Magaddino JP. Suicide and firearm control laws. Evaluation Review. 1983; 7:357-72.

Miller M, Hemenway D. The relationship between firearms and suicide: a review of the literature. Aggression and Violent Behavior. 1999; 4:59-75.

Miller M, Azrael D, Hemenway D. Gun availability and suicide rates across US states, 1988-1997. Harvard Injury Control Research Center Working Paper 2001-4.

NCVS (National Center for Health Statistics). Hyattsville, Maryland: US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, CDC, 2001.

Peterson LG, Peterson M, O’Shanick GJ, Swann A. Self-inflicted gunshot wounds: lethality of method versus intent. American Journal of Psychiatry 1985; 142:228-231.

Seiden RH. Suicide prevention: a public health/public policy approach. Omega 1977; 8:267-76.

Sloan, J.H., Rivara, F.P., Reay, D.T., Ferris, J.A., & Kellermann, A.L. (1990). Firearm regulations and rates of suicide : a comparison of two metropolitan cities. New England Journal of Medicine, 322, 369-73.

Yang B, Lester D. The effect of gun availability on suicide rates. Atlantic Economic Review. 1991; 19:74.


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Matthew Miller, MD, MPH, Sc.D., a general internist and medical oncologist, is currently an associate director of the Harvard Injury Control Research Center. David Hemenway, Ph.D., is the director of the Harvard Injury Control Research Center and President of the National Association of Injury Control Research Centers.
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