Rebels with a Cause:
Tiananmen in History and Memory
Freshman Seminar 46t
Instructor: Rowena He, Ph.D.
It is not possible to understand today’s China without understanding the spring of 1989.
In spring 1989, millions of Chinese took to the streets calling for political reforms. The nationwide demonstrations and the college students’ hunger strike on Tiananmen Square ended with the People’s Liberation Army firing on unarmed civilians. Student leaders and intellectuals were purged, imprisoned, or exiled. Discussion about “Tiananmen” remains a political taboo in China today despite the Tiananmen Mothers’ struggle to keep the forbidden memory alive. This course will explore the Tiananmen Movement in history and memory, and its long-term impact on Chinese society and politics.
DETAILED COURSE DESCRIPTION
The 1989 Tiananmen Movement, known in Chinese as “June Fourth (六四),” is considered the most serious open conflict between the Chinese Communist regime and the Chinese people since the establishment of the People’s Republic of China in 1949. Sparked by the April 15, 1989 death of Hu Yaobang, the former general secretary of the Chinese Communist Party whose reformist leadership distinguished him from other hard-liner leaders, Chinese intellectuals and students began a series of nationwide petitions, demonstrations, and hunger strikes calling for political reforms, but they were suppressed on June 4 as the Chinese government ordered the military to fire on unarmed civilians.
What is significant about June Fourth in China today? On the surface, it seems that the event is completely remote and irrelevant to the reality of the “rising China,” but every year on its anniversary, the government clamps down with intense security and meticulous surveillance. June Fourth epitomizes the relationship between history, memory, and power in the Chinese context. Haunted by the relationship between the crackdown in 1989 and the legitimacy of the party and government, the post-Tiananmen regime has constructed a narrative that portrays June Fourth as a Western conspiracy, under the guise of a “pro-democracy” movement, to weaken China, hence justifying its crackdown as “patriotic” and paving the way for China’s rise. This officially-constructed history is disputed by various groups of people who regard their efforts to preserve the memory of June Fourth as part of a broader struggle for social justice and human rights. Because public opinion pertaining to nationalism and democratization is inseparable from a collective memory (truthful, selective, or manipulated) of the nation’s most immediate past, the memory of this traumatic past has become a highly contested field.
This course will explore the background, major events, and the long-term impact of the Tiananmen Movement in Chinese society today, and will explore the implications of the politicization of June Fourth in memory. The purpose of the course is to help students understand modern and contemporary China through an approach that integrates studies of social movements (youth movements in particular) and political socialization. Why and how was this spontaneous mass movement that challenged the government initiated by a generation of youth whose political socialization had been designed to ensure their loyalty to the party-state? Despite its outward rebellious nature, did the movement show any signs of being influenced by their political socialization? What did the regime learn from June Fourth? How did the state modify its practice of political socialization for the post-89 generations so as to prevent a reoccurrence of such a movement? What was the impact of June Fourth on the Communist states in Eastern Europe? These are some of the questions that will be discussed in this course.
Exiled student leaders, political prisoners from the movement, and eye-witnesses of the June 4th military crackdown will be invited to share their experience and perspectives with the class. What brought the students to the streets? What were the dreams and goals of the 1989 generation? Bring your questions!
Class Activities & Final Project
This class is a freshman seminar, which means you will not be graded with an “ABC,” but only with a “Satisfactory” or “Unsatisfactory.” Let’s take this opportunity to be creative and have fun when we explore, debate, reflect, and grow.
Class interactions can take many formats. For example, we will role-play in teams as the Tank Man confronting the military, or as students debating whether or not they should end their hunger strike. The class will also have the opportunity to explore the Tiananmen archive at the Yenching Library, which includes photographs, signs held by protesters, big-character posters, and clothes stained with blood.
You are expected to complete the required readings before each class, and take active part in class discussions. Each student will give a presentation of no more than 10 minutes focused on readings of the week they pick.
The final term project can be a research paper, an oral history project, a play script, a documentary, a translation of June 4 materials, a painting, a song, or any other creative work. Students are encouraged to interview former participants in social movements either inside or outside of China.
At the end of the semester, we will host a symposium to share your research and thoughts with a wider Harvard community.
- Primary-source (in English) collections from the Tiananmen Movement;
- Personal accounts by observers and memoirs and oral histories by student participants;
- Information about the victims, the victims’ families, and the survivors collected by the Tiananmen Mothers Group, led by Professor Ding Zilin whose son was killed during the military onslaught on June 3rd 1989;
- Media reports on the event from both inside and outside of China and reports by human rights organizations and overseas Chinese associations;
- Interpretations and analyses by historians, sociologists, political scientists, educators, and others.
- Documentaries, films, songs, poems, literature, and other cultural products that reveal the background to the events that led up to the spring of 1989, the Tiananmen demonstrations themselves and their ultimate suppression, as well as the post-1989 situation in China.
Students with little or no background on twentieth-century China are encouraged to read one or both of the following: John K. Fairbank, China: A new history (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1991), pp. 255-432; Jonathan D. Spence, The search for modern China (New York: Norton, 1990), pp. 269-747. (Both of these are highly readable accounts; the latter is more detailed.)
For a detailed, day-by-day chronology of the Tiananmen events, consult Theodore Han and John Li, eds., Tiananmen Square spring 1989: A chronology of the Chinese democracy movement (Berkeley: Center for Chinese Studies, University of California, 1992).
READINGS: JOURNAL ARTICLES AND BOOK CHAPTERS
For assigned and supplementary journal articles and book chapters, you can download them from the course iSite under Required Weekly Readings and Supplementary Readings.
READINGS: REQUIRED BOOKS
Required books have been ordered at the Harvard Coop.
Brook, T. (1998). Quelling the people: The military suppression of the Beijing democracy movement. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Shen, T. (1998). Almost a revolution: The story of a Chinese student’s journey from boyhood to leadership in Tiananmen Square. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Map of Tiananmen victims: http://chrdnet.com/2012/06/june-3-4-2009-20th-anniversary-of-tiananmen-square-massacre-maps-victims-name-lists/ Maps with 1) locations where all known June 4 victims were killed in 1989; 2) locations of hospitals where bodies of the victims were found in 1989.
PBS - The Tank Man: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/tankman/
Virtual museum of China 1989: http://museums.cnd.org/China89/ (in Chinese)
Testimonies of the Tiananmen Mothers’ group (with English subtitles):
Tiananmen Mothers website: www.tiananmenmothers.org (in Chinese)
The Tank Man (a PBS documentary, 90 minutes): http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/tankman/
Blood is on the Square: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N4PJVLTrjt0
OVERVIEW OF THE 1989 TIANANMEN MOVEMENT
C.J. Calhoun. Neither gods nor emperors: Students and the struggle for democracy in China (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994), pp. ix – 24.
R. Cherrington. China’s students: The struggle for democracy (New York: Routledge, 1991), pp.1-9.
T. Brook, Quelling the people: The military suppression of the Beijing democracy movement (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1998), pp. ix-15.
PBS documentary: Gate of Heavenly Peace.
O. Schell. Mandate of heaven: The legacy of Tiananmen Square and the next generation of China’s leaders (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1994), pp. 1-30 (Prologue “Tiananmen Square as History”).
BACKGROUND: CULTURAL AND INTELLECTUAL TRENDS IN THE 1980s
C.J. Calhoun. Neither gods nor emperors: Students and the struggle for democracy in China (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994), pp. 213-236 (“Cultural crisis”).
P. Link. Evening chats in Beijing: Probing China’s predicament. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1992), pp. 249 -290 (“Responsibility”).
T. Shen. Almost a revolution (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1998), pp. 31-106. (“Billy Clubs and Violins” and “Blue Dove and Misty Poets”).
Video: “Heshang” (River Elegy) (a condensed version of the original film, with English subtitles; about 55 minutes)
Edward Gunn. “The rhetoric of River Elegy: From cultural criticism to social act,” in Roger Des Forges and Luo Ning, eds., Chinese democracy and the crisis of 1989: Chinese and American reflections (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1993), pp. 247-261.
James Watson. “The renegotiation of Chinese cultural identity in the post-Mao era,” in Kenneth Lieberthal, et al., eds., Perspectives on modern China: Four anniversaries (Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1991), pp. 364-386.
LIU, Binyan. “A Second Kind of Loyalty,” in P. Link, ed., Two kinds of truth: Stories and reportage from China, trans. Richard W. Bodman (Indiana University Press, 2006), pp. 149-207.
P. Link. “An interview with Liu Binyan,” in P. Link, ed., Two kinds of truth: Stories and reportage from China (Indiana University Press, 2006), pp. 1-28.
Pin P. WAN. “A second wave of enlightenment? Or an illusory nirvana? Heshang and the intellectual movements of the 1980s,” in SU Xiaokang and WANG Luxiang, Death song of the river: A reader’s guide to the Chinese TV Series HESHANG, trans. Richard W. Bodman and Pin P. WAN (Ithaca, NY: Cornell East Asia Series, 1991), pp. 63-89.
SU Xiaokang and WANG Luxiang. “River Elegy, a television documentary,” in Suzanne Ogden et al. eds., China’s search for democracy (Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 1992), pp. 37-44.
Vera Schwarcz. “Memory and commemoration: The Chinese search for a livable past,” in Jeffrey N. Wasserstrom and Elizabeth J. Perry, eds., Popular protest and political culture in modern China, rev. ed. (Boulder: Westview, 1993), pp. 170-183.
BACKGROUND: POLITICAL, ECONOMIC, AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENTS IN THE 1980s
P. Link. Evening chats in Beijing: Probing China’s predicament. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1992), pp. 90 -122 (Livelihood).
T. Shen. Almost a revolution (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1998), pp.107-161 (“Beijing University” and “Year of the Dragon”).
M. Goldman. From comrade to citizen: The struggle for political rights in China (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2005), pp. 51-67 (“The establishment of an independent political organization in the 1980s: Beijing social and economic sciences research institute”).
Craig Calhoun. “Science, democracy, and the politics of identity,” in Wasserstrom and Perry, eds., Popular protest and political culture in modern China: Learning from 1989, pp. 93-124.
Kathleen Hartford, “The political economy behind Beijing spring,” in Tony Saich, ed., The Chinese people’s movement (Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 1990), pp. 50-82.
Andrew Walder. “The political sociology of the Beijing upheaval of 1989,” Problems of Communism, vol. 38, no. 5 (Sept.-Oct. 1989), pp. 30-40.
Thomas B. Gold. “Guerrilla interviewing among the Getihu, in Perry Link et al., eds., Unofficial China: Popular culture and thought in the People’s Republic (Boulder: Westview, 1989), pp. 175-192.
Stanley Rosen. “The impact of reform policies on youth attitudes,” in Davis and Vogel, eds., Chinese society on the eve of Tiananmen (Cambridge, MA: Council on East Asian Studies, 1990), pp. 283-305.
Tony Saich. “The reform decade in China: The limits to revolution from above,” in Marta Dassù and Tony Saich, eds., The reform decade in China: From hope to dismay (London: Kegan Paul, 1992), pp. 10-38.
TIANANMEN IN HISTORY: THE 1989 DEMONSTRATIONS AND THE HUNGER STRIKE
T. Brook, Quelling the people: The military suppression of the Beijing democracy movement (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1998), pp. 16-77 (“Changing Fate April 15-May19” and “No place left unguarded May 19 – 23”).
T. Shen. Almost a revolution (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1998), pp.165-316 (“Hu Yao Bang is Dead,” “The Spirit of May Fourth,” and “Dialogue Delegation”).
G.B. Yang. “Emotional events and the transformation of collective action: The Chinese student movement,” in Helen Flam and Debra King, eds., Emotions and social movements (Routledge, 2005), pp.79-98.
ZHAO, Ziyang. “The Student Protests Begin,” in Bao Pu, Renee Chiang and Adi Ignatius, eds., Prisoner of the State: The secret journal of Premier Zhao Ziyang (NY: Simon & Schuster, 2009), pp. 3-14.
C.J. Calhoun. Neither gods nor emperors: Students and the struggle for democracy in China (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994), pp. 27-59 (“Mounting Protests”).
Geremie Barmé. “Beijing days, Beijing nights,” in Jonathan Unger, ed., The pro-democracy protests in China: Reports from the provinces (Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 1991), pp. 35-58.
HAN, Minzhu, ed. Cries for democracy: Writings and speeches from the 1989 Chinese democracy movement (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1990), pp. 195-253.
TIANANMEN IN HISTORY: THE CRACKDOWN ON JUNE 4
T. Brook. Quelling the people: The military suppression of the Beijing democracy movement (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1998), pp. 79-169 (“Waiting for the Moon May 24-June3,” “Spilling Blood June 3-4,” and “Counting Bodies June 4”).
T. Shen. Almost a revolution (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1998), pp.317-334 (“Bloody Sunday and Farewell”).
ZHAO, Ziyang. “The Crackdown,” in Bao Pu, Renee Chiang and Adi Ignatius, eds., Prisoner of the State: The secret journal of Premier Zhao Ziyang (NY: Simon & Schuster, 2009), pp. 25-34.
J. Schildlovsky. “Waiting for their turn to die: The battle for Tiananmen Square,” Toronto Star, June 5, 1989, p. A14.
Andrew Scobell. “Why the people’s army fired on the people,” in Des Forges and Luo Ning, eds., Chinese democracy and the crisis of 1989, pp. 191-221.
TIANANMEN IN HISTORY: ARREST, PURGE AND ESCAPE
T. Brook. Quelling the people: The military suppression of the Beijing democracy movement (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1998), pp. 170-194 (“Consequences June 4-9”).
O. Schell. Mandate of heaven: The legacy of Tiananmen Square and the next generation of China’s leaders (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1994), pp. 164-227 (“We should not have one bit of forgiveness for them,” “A Hundred Flowers Fade,”, and “Three Routes to Exile”).
Punishment season: Human rights in China after martial law (Asia Watch, 1990), pp. 7-56.
G. Hewitt. “The great escape from China; How ‘Operation Yellow Bird’ saved scores of dissidents from Beijing’s secret police,” Washington Post, June 2, 1991, p. D1.
M. Liu. “Still on the wing; Inside Operation Yellowbird, the daring plot to help dissidents escape,” Newsweek, April 1, 1991.
S. Leys. (1990). After the Massacres. In Hicks G. (Ed.), The broken mirror: China after Tiananmen. Essex: Longman Current Affairs.
Chinese Human Rights Defenders (维权网) (2008, June, 2nd). Requests to release June 4th prisoners in Beijing 19 years after the event. Retrieved July 29, 2008, from http://crd-net.org/Article/Class4/200806/20080602012935_8855.html
TIANANMEN AS “TURMOIL”: THE OFFICIAL VERSION AND THE CHINESE MEDIA
“It is necessary to take a clear cut stand against disturbances”. April 26 Renmin Ribao (People’s Daily) editorial (in both Chinese & English). Foreign Broadcast Information Service, April 25, 1989, pp.23-24.
May 19 Li Peng’s speech declaring martial law (in both Chinese & English). Foreign Broadcast Information Service, May 22, 1989, pp.9-13.
June 9 Deng Xiaoping’s speech to martial law unit commanders (in both Chinese & English). Foreign Broadcast Information Service, June 27, 1989, pp.8-10.
CHEN Xitong. “Report to NPC on quelling the counter-revolutionary rebellion,” in Michel Oksenberg et al., eds., Beijing Spring, 1989: Confrontation and Conflict (Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 1990), pp. 55-81.
ZHAO, Ziyang. “Zhao Becomes a Prisoner,” in Bao Pu, Renee Chiang and Adi Ignatius, eds., Prisoner of the State: The secret journal of Premier Zhao Ziyang (NY: Simon & Schuster, 2009), pp. 53-71.
“Rumors and the truth,” Beijing Review, 32 (37), September 18-24, 1989, pp. 20-26.
“Hunger strike shakes the nation,” Beijing Review, 32(22), May 29 – June 4, 1989, cover story.
The truth about the Beijing turmoil (Beijing: Beijing Publishing House, 1989) (Photo essay from the government’s perspective).
Official documents in Oksenberg, Beijing spring, pp. 81-88 (CHEN Xitong, report to NPC), pp.317-327 (LI Peng, YANG Shangkun), pp. 333-338 (DENG Xiaoping), pp. 341-353 (WU Ye, Propaganda Dept. of Beijing Party Committee), pp. 363-390 (YUAN Mu news conference, DENG Xiaoping speeches, China Daily account)
Michael F. Berlin. “The performance of the Chinese media during the Beijing spring,” in Des Forges and Luo Ning, eds., Chinese democracy and the crisis of 1989, pp. 263-275.
Seth Faison. “The changing role of the Chinese media,” in Saich, ed., The Chinese people’s movement, pp. 145-163.
Linda Jakobson. “‘Lies in ink, Truth in blood’: The role and impact of the Chinese media during the Beijing spring of ’89,” Discussion Paper D-6, Joan Shorenstein Barone Center on the Press, Politics and Public Policy, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, August 1990.
“Turmoil at Tiananmen: A study of U.S. press coverage of the Beijing spring of 1989,” Joan Shorenstein Barone Center on the Press, Politics and Public Policy, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, June 1992, pp. 1-31, 40-67, 81-105, 113-120, 133-211.
TIANANMEN AS TABOO: THE IMPACT OF JUNE 4 AT HOME
T. Brook. Quelling the people: The military suppression of the Beijing democracy movement (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1998), pp. 195-218 (“Closing the Century”).
D. Curran and S. Cook. “Research in post-Tiananmen China,” in C. Renzetti and R.M. Lee, eds., Researching sensitive topics (Newbury Park, California: Sage Publications, 1993), pp. 71-81.
Judy Polumbaum. “Chinese journalism since the tragedy of Tiananmen,” in William A. Joseph, ed., China Briefing, 1991 (Boulder, CO: Westview, 1992), pp. 57-76.
P. Link. Evening chats in Beijing: Probing China’s predicament. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1992), pp. 29 -50.
Perry Link. “The silence of China’s intellectuals,” May 2001. Project Syndicate: An Association of Newspapers around the World. Retrieved July 30, 2008, at http://www.project-syndicate.org/commentary/link1
R. Foot. Rights beyond borders: The global community and the struggle over human rights in China (Oxford University Press, 2000), pp. 113-150 (“Tiananmen and its aftermath, June 1989 – November 1991).
Richard Baum. “The paralysis of power: Chinese politics since Tiananmen,” in William A. Joseph, ed., China Briefing, 1991, pp. 7-35.
David Zweig. “Sino-American relations and human rights: June 4 and the changing nature of a bilateral relationship,” in William T. Tow, ed., Building Sino-American relations: An analysis for the 1990s (New York, 1991), pp. 57-92.
TIANANMEN IN EXILE: THE MOVEMENT AND DISSIDENTS IN EXILE
Rowena He. Romance and revolution: Tiananmen voices from exile (Chapters on the exiles).
Andrew Nathan. “The Dissenting Life,” The New Republic, January 14, 2002, pp. 37-41.
E.A. Gargan. “For a dissident, too much fame and freedom,” The New York Times, April 28, 1998.
H. Beech. “The exile and the entrepreneur: Fifteen years on, two Chinese cousins still wrestle with Tiananmen’s legacy,” Time Asia Report, May 31, 2004.
Documentary: Twenty Years in Exile (走过二十年). Four series, Two hours. RTHK, HK.
Ian Buruma. Bad Elements: Chinese Rebels from Los Angeles to Beijing (Random House, 2001), pp. 3-41.
R.M. Murphy. “A Tiananmen rebel turns capitalist: After fleeing to the U.S., an entrepreneur returns to do business with his former oppressors,” Fortune Small Business, April 17, 2007.
P. Ponce. “Online focus: Wang Dan,” PBS NewsHour, April 27, 1998.
A. Laduguie. “China: Wang Dan—a symbol of hope,” Amnesty International, August 27, 2004.
TIANANMEN IN MEMORY: NARRATIVES OF THE TIANANMEN MOTHERS AND THE TIANANMEN VETERANS
LIAO, Yiwu (translated by WEN Huang). The corpse walker: Real-life stories, China from the bottom up (New York: Random House, 2009), pp. 203-230 (“The Tiananmen Father” and “The Counterrevolutionary”).
Rowena, He. Still Seeking Justice for the Tiananmen Massacre. Washington Post, June 5, 2012.
M. Goldman. From comrade to citizen: The struggle for political rights in China (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2005), pp. 68-80 (“Tiananmen mothers’ struggles to win reassessment of June 4).
P. Link. “June fourth: Memory and ethics,” China Perspectives, no. 2 (2009), pp. 4-16.
M.X. Chen. “Together and Apart: My Life with Liu Xianbin-Dedicated to the Wives of all Dissidents.” Translated by Human Rights in China. http://www.hrichina.org/crf/article/5660.
Liu, X.B. “Listen Carefully to the Voices of the Tiananmen Mothers,” in No Enemies, No Hatred: Selected Essays and Poems, Eds. Link, Liao, & Liu (Harvard University Press, 2012), pp. 3-13.
Perry, Link. “What the Tiananmen Mothers Offer China”/China Rights Forum/, no. 2, 2004, pp. 41-43
Are China’s Discus Champ: Alone, Disabled and Barred. http://www.nytimes.com/1994/09/08/world/china-s-discus-champ-alone-disabled-and-barred.html?pagewanted=all&src=pm
Testimony of Fang Zheng, Wounded: http://iso.hrichina.org/content/4547
Testimonies of the Tiananmen Mothers’ group (with English subtitles):
Documentary: “Returning Home: 20th Anniversary of June Fourth.” (回家：六四二十周年)
Nicholas Kristof. “Three years after Tiananmen, and who remembers?” New York Times, June 5, 1992.
B.L. Zhang. Escape from China: The long journey from Tiananmen to freedom (New York: Washington Square Press, 2002).
THE POST-TIANANMEN GENERATION: PATRIOTIC EDUCATION AND NATIONALIST SENTIMENTS
G.R. Barme. In the red: On contemporary Chinese culture (New York: Columbia University Press, 1999), pp. 255-280 (“To Screw Foreigners is Patriotic”).
Liu, X.B. “The Roots of Chinese ‘Patriotism’ at the Dawn of the Twenty-First Century,” in No Enemies, No Hatred: Selected Essays and Poems, Eds. Link, Liao, & Liu (Harvard University Press, 2012), pp. 62-84.
Liu, X.B. “The Roots of Chinese ‘Patriotism’ at the Dawn of the Twenty-First Century,” in No Enemies, No Hatred: Selected Essays and Poems, Eds. Link, Liao, & Liu (Harvard University Press, 2012), pp. 62-84.
S. Zhao. “A state-led nationalism: The patriotic education campaign in post-Tiananmen China,” Communist and Post-Communist Studies, 31(1998), pp. 287-302.
Vickers, E. “The Opportunity of China? Education, Patriotic Values and the Chinese State,” in Education as a Political Tool in Asia, Eds. Marie Lall & Edward Vickers (London: Routledge, 2009), pp.53-82.
Gregory P. Fairbrother. “Patriotic Education in a Chinese Middle School,” in W.O. Lee, et al., eds., Citizenship education in Asia and the Pacific: Concepts and issues (Hong Kong: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2004), pp. 157-174.
E. Friedman (in press). History as destiny: Re-thinking June 4.
P. Gries. China’s new nationalism (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004).
C.R. Hughes. Chinese nationalism in the global era (New York: Routledge, 2006).
R. Hayhoe. “Political texts in Chinese universities before and after Tiananmen,” Pacific Affairs, 66(1) (1993), pp. 21- 43.
W.O. Lee. “Changing ideopolitical emphases in moral education in China: An analysis of the CCP Central Committee documents,” Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 16(1996), pp. 106-121.
S. Rosen (in press). Seeking to understand the contradictions in the attitudes and behavior of contemporary Chinese youth.
TIANANMEN IN THE ARTS: COMMEMORTIVE EVENTS, VIRTUAL MUSUEMS, MUSIC AND CULTURE
C.J. Calhoun. Neither gods nor emperors: Students and the struggle for democracy in China (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994), pp. 237-270 (“Claiming Democracy” and “To be Worthy of the Cause”).
The Virtual Museum of China 1989: http://museums.cnd.org/China89/
The Virtual Monument of June 4 victims: http://www.tiananmenmother.org/
DC Memorial Service (Reciting Names of Known June 4 Victims)
CCTV June 4th:
Zhao Ziyang last public appearance:
Sound of Silence:
Military Crackdown (Hong Kong ATV):
Hongkong Memorial Service at Victoria Park:
The Glory of Blood （血染的风采）: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pO4VCyXguSU&feature=fvwrel
Chinese Songs written for the 1989 Movement:
Facing No More Darkness (漆黑将不再面对):
Flower of Freedom （自由花）:
The Wound of History （历史的伤口）:
Mum, I didn’t do anything wrong （妈妈，我没有错）：
Sunshine in May(五月的阳光):
English Songs written for 1989:
Keeping the dream alive:
Blood is on the square: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N4PJVLTrjt0
Andrew Jones. “The politics of popular music in post-Tiananmen China,” in Wasserstrom and Perry, eds., Popular protest and political culture in modern China, eds., pp. 148-165.
1989 AND THE WORLD
J. Engel, ed. The fall of the Berlin wall: The revolutionary legacy of 1989 (New York: Oxford University Press, 2009).
V. Sebestyn. Revolution 1989: The fall of the Soviet empire (New York: Pantheon, 2009).
S. Kotkin. Uncivil society: 1989 and the implosion of the communist establishment (New York: Modern Library, 2009).
Recommended Further Readings
Geremie Barme & Linda Jaivin (eds.) (1992). New ghosts, old dreams: Chinese rebel voices (New York: Times Books).
Black, G. & R. Munro (1993). Black hands of Beijing: Lives of defiance in China’s democracy movement. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Bao Pu, Renee Chiang & Adi Ignatius (eds.) (2009). Prisoner of the State: The secret journal of Premier Zhao Ziyang (NY: Simon & Schuster).
Calhoun, C. J. (1994). Neither gods nor emperors: Students and the struggle for democracy in China. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Cherrington, R. (1991). China’s students: The struggle for democracy. New York: Routledge.
Duke, Michael (1990). The Iron House: A memoir of the Chinese democracy movement and the Tiananmen Massacre (Layton, UT; Gibbs Smith).
M. Goldman (2005). From comrade to citizen: The struggle for political rights in China (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press)
HAN, M., & Hua, S. (Eds.) (1990). Cries for democracy: Writings and speeches from the 1989 Chinese democracy movement. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
P. Link (1992). Evening chats in Beijing: Probing China’s predicament. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.
Ogden, S. et al. (eds.) (1992). China’s Search for Democracy: The student and mass movement of 1989, Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.
Unger, J. (ed.) (1991). The pro-democracy protests in China: Reports from the provinces. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.
ZHAO, D. (2001). The power of Tiananmen: State-society relations and the 1989 Beijing student movement. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Recommended Chinese Readings
Ding, Z. L. 丁子霖 (2005). 寻访六四受难者 [In Search of the Victims of June 4 ]. Hong Kong: Open Press (开放杂志社).
Wang, D. 王丹 (1997). 狱中回忆录 [Prison Memoirs]. Taiwan: Xin Xin Wen Publisher 新新闻.
Ya, Y. 亚依 (2005). 流亡者访谈录 [Interviews with Exiles]. Hong Kong: Xiafeier Publishing Ltd. 夏菲尔出版有限公司